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Bài gửi by Admin on Tue Nov 03, 2009 5:22 am

I/ Relative pronouns:
Who ,whom, which, where, when, whose ,why , what, that .
II/Relative clauses:
1/ The Relative pronounis the subject of the relative clause :
Ex : I don't like the man . He lives next door .
---> I don't like the man who lives next door.
I don't like the book . It tells about a famous actor.
---> I don't like the book which tells about a famous actor.
NOTE:"That" can replace " who" and " which"
The relative pronoun can't be omitted.
2/ The relative pronoun is the object of the relative clause :
Ex: Have you read the book ?. I lent you that book last week.
---> Have you read the book which I lent you last week ?
I like the shirt . You are wearing it.
--> I like the shirt which you are wearing.
"That" can replace " Who"," whom" and " which".
The relative pronoun can be omitted.
3/ The relative clause with preposition:
Ex:I don't like the hotel . We are living in that hotel
---> I don't like the hotel which we are living in.
(OR) --> I don't like the hotel in which we are living.
That girl is my sister.You are talking about her
--> The girl who/(whom)you are talking about is my sister.
(OR) --> The girl about whom you are talking is my sister.
" That"can replace "who" ," whom" and " which" when the preposition is at the end of the relative clause.
In formal English preposition are pled before the relative pronoun.
III/There are 3 kinds of relative clause : Defining, non- defining and connective.A/Defining relative clauses :
1/ A defining relative clause specifies which person or thing we mean . It can not be separated from the person or thing it describes
The man who told me this refused to give me his name
( "Who told me this " is a defining relative clause . If we omit this . it is not clear what the man talking about )
Notice that there is no comma between a noun and a defining relative clause.
-Defining relative clause usually follow "the"+ Noun but they can be also be used with " a/an" + noun, plural nouns without "the" and the pronouns : all, none , anybody , somebody... and those .
-Clauses following " a/an"+ noun , plural nouns without "the/somebody/someone"...sometimes define their noun/ pronoun only indirectly.The noun/ pronoun in these cases is usually the object of a verb or preposition.
A doctor is a person/ someone who gives patients medical treatment.
I met a person who said he knew you.
-Sometimes these clauses are separated from their noun/ pronoun by a word or phrase
I saw something in the paper which would interest you
-But normally, relative clauses should be placed directly after their noun /pronoun
Ex :
Is there anything i can do to help ?
The noise that he made woke everybody up.
2/ Relative pronouns used in defining relative clauses :
+/ For persons -- Subject :who /that
-- Object : who/whom/that
--possesive : whose
a/ Subject : who/ that
"Who" is normally used but "that" is a possible alternative after " all/ everyone/ everybody/noone/ nobody/ those
The man who has just come is our headmaster .
Only those who had booked in advance were allowed in.
b/ Object of a verb :Who/whom/that"Whom" is the Object form of " who" and is used formally in object clauses
He is a person whom you can rely on
-However, this is noun felt to be excessively formal by most speakers and " who" is commonly used instead ( that is more usual than "who").And it is still more common to omit the object pronoun altogether.
The man whom i saw told me to come back today.
(OR) The man who i saw..../The man i saw...../ The man that i saw ....
c/ With a preposition : Whom/ that
- In formal English " whom" has to be used if it follows a preposition.
Ex :
To whom Am I speaking?
-In formal speech , however, it is more usual to move the preposition to the end of the clause. "Whom" then is often replaced by " that", but it's still common to omit the relative altogether.
The man to whon i spoke.
(OR) The man who/ whom i spoke to
(OR) The man that i spoke to/ The man i spoke to
-However , in everyday use, it's usual to avoid this kind of construction
Who am i speaking to?
d/Possessive :
- Whose = " of whom" and "whose" is the only possible form
Several guests whose rooms had been broken into complained to the manager.


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