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B/Non-Defining R.C :
1/ A non-defining r.c contains extra information :
- In writing it is seperated by comma ,and in speech , if use " at all", is usually indicated by intonation .
A train , which was already an hour late,broke down again .
-Non-defining r.c are placed after nouns which are definitely "already" .They do not therefore define the noun, but merely add something to it by giving some more information about it .
-Unlike Defining r.c , they are not essential in the sentence and can be omitted without causing confusion .The pronoun can never be omitted in a non-defining clause .
NoTice that we put a comma between a noun and a non-defining clause and another comma at the end of this clause if it is not also at the end of the sentence .
2/Relative pronouns used in non-defining r.c :
---For Persons :
----Object :whom/ who
----Object :whom/ who
a/ Subject :who-We use "who" as the subject of the clause
Peter ,who had been driving all day, suggested stopping at the next turn .
Notice that :
Clauses such as these ,which come immediately after the subject of the main verb . In spoken English we would be more likely to say :
Peter had been driving all day so he suggested stopping
at the next turn.
--Clauses following "a preposition +Noun " are also common .
I passed the letter to Peter ,who was sitting next to me .
-We used "who/whom " as the subject of the main clause although "whom" is more formal and rarely used in spoken English .The pronoun can't be omitted .
Peter , who/whom I admire , is going to visit the university next week .
--But non-defining clauses , coming later in the sentence , after the object of the main verb or after a preposition+noun , are common in conversation .
She introduced me to her husband ,whom i hadn't met before .
c/ Object of a preposition
-The preposition is normally placed before "whom" and the pronoun can't be omitted .
Mr Richard , for whom i was working , was vey generous.
--It is however possible to move the preposition to the end of the clause . This is commonly done in conversation and "who" then finally take the place of " whom"
Mr Richard , who i was working for , was generous.
--If the clause contains the expression of time or place , this will remain at the end.
John , with whom i played tennis last week, was fatter than me .
John , who /whom i played tennis with last week , was fatter than me .
Ex :Ann, whose children are at school all day , is trying to get a job .
Note:"All , both , most, few , several, some "+of + whom/ which<--------This form can be both used for people and things.
-When we want to add information about the whole or the part of a particular number of things or people , we can use the non-defining r.c with " of which/of whom" after words such as :"all,both,each,many,most,neither,none,part,som e , (a number ne ,two. thee,...,the first ,the second ,.... ,a half , a third ,...)and superlatives ( the best , the biggest,....)
Her sons , both of whom study abroad , ring her up every week.
The busses, most of which are already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd.
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